Lens types are classified as “Prime” which comes with fixed focal length and “Zoom” which has variable focal length.

English: A Nikon D300s with Zoom-Nikkor 18-135...

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  • Prime includes sub group of Standard (35- 80mm), Wide-Angle (15-28mm), Macro (50-100mm), Telephoto (80-300mm) and Super Telephoto lenses (200-400mm).
  • Zoom comes with variations like: Wide-Angle to Telephoto or Standard to Telephoto coverage. Even the point and shoot type of digital camera  comes with a Standard 35-80mm lens. A Standard lens is also known as “normal-lens” the term “normal” is used for this type because it captures a scene just as the human eye sees it. A Standard lens is great for everyday shots, such as flowers, people, or pets.

Wide-angle gives a broader view of a scene than a standard lens does. Because this lens captures a wide area it is used for photographing groups of people and landscapes.

Telephoto is used to enlarge pictures or for bringing distant subjects closer. A common telephoto comes with 75-300 mm coverage. When you begin to move from the 35mm into something larger it is best to either use a tripod or a stabilizer. A stabilizer will help you hold the camera steady for clear shots even if your hand moves a little bit.

Super telephoto comes with 200-400mm lens. It is mostly used for capturing wild life or birds.

A Macro lens is designed to capture a tiny subject as a bigger image. Macro photography is a type of shooting that magnifies
the size of a subject. As it name implies it is great for close up shots, such as flowers, spider webs, insects and other small objects.

Digital zoom simply crops the image to a smaller size, and then enlarges the cropped portion to fill the frame.

Optical zoom works just like a digital zoom. The lens changes focal length and increase magnification as it is zoomed.

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